Interestingly, dioscin also significantly rehabilitated the level

Interestingly, dioscin also significantly rehabilitated the levels of body weights, AST, ALT and hydroxyproline BEZ235 concentration in rats caused by TAA, which were verified by histological determinations. Mechanistically, dioscin obviously facilitated matrix degradation, significantly decreased liver inflammation by inhibiting NF-kappa B activation and proinflammatory cytokine production, attenuated oxidative stress by reducing lipid peroxidation and activating Nrf2-mediated antioxidantive enzymes, and evidently adjusted TGF-beta/smad and MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, dioscin ameliorated liver fibrosis via affecting oxidative stress, inflammation,

HSC activation, matrix degradation, TGF-beta/smad and MAPK pathways, which should be developed to be one effective food and healthcare product for the treatment of liver fibrosis in the future. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

“Despite the known adverse effects of abamectin pesticide, little is known about its action on male fertility. To explore the effects of exposure to abamectin on male fertility and its mechanism, low (1 mg/kg/day) LY2835219 in vivo and high dose (4 mg/kg/day) abamectin were applied to male rats by oral gavage for 1 week and for 6 weeks. Weight of testes, serum reproductive hormone levels, sperm dynamics and histopathology of testes were used to evaluate the reproductive efficiency of abamectin-exposed rats. Abamectin level was determined at high concentrations in plasma and testicular tissues of male rats exposed to this pesticide. The testes weights of animals and serum testosterone concentrations did not show any significant changes after abamectin exposure. Abamectin administration was associated with decreased sperm count and motility and increased seminiferous tubule damage. In addition, significant elevations in the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE)-modified proteins and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) expression, as markers for oxidative stress and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation, were observed in testes of rats exposed to abamectin. These results

showed that abamectin exposure induces testicular Selleck Blebbistatin damage and affects sperm dynamics. Oxidative stress-mediated PARP activation might be one of the possible mechanism(s) underlying testicular damage induced by abamectin. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The present study sought to quantify the components of a biotic ligand model (BLM) for the effects of Cd on Folsomia candida (Collembola). Assuming that soil porewater is the main route of exposure and to exclude the effects of soil particles on metal availability, animals were exposed for 7 d to different Cd concentrations between 0.1mM and 100mM in simplified soil solutions at different Ca concentrations (0.2mM, 0.8mM, 3.2mM, and 12.8mM) or at different pH (5.0, 6.0, and 7.0).

5-92 5) and 88 5% (95% CI: 69 8-97 6), respectively Conclusio

5-92.5) and 88.5% (95% CI: 69.8-97.6), respectively.\n\nConclusions:\n\nUsing of AhpC antigen for diagnosis of H. pylori infection is a useful noninvasive method, accurate in adolescents and children,

and can be used for the development of a stool antigen detection kit for H. pylori.”
“The mammalian neocortex displays significant plastic rearrangement in response to altered sensory input, especially during early postnatal development. It is believed that cyclic AMP-response element-binding (CREB) plays an important role in orchestrating the molecular events that guide neuroplastic change, although the details of its genomic targets during normal postnatal development or in response to sensory deprivation remain unknown. Here, we performed CREB chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) from monkey area V1 tissue and hybridized enriched DNA fragments to promoter microarrays (ChIP chip analysis). Our goal was to determine and categorize the CREB regulon in monkey area V1 at two distinct developmental stages (peak of critical period vs. adulthood) and after 5 days of monocular enucleation (ME) at both ages. ASP2215 Classification of enriched candidates showed that the majority of isolated promoter loci (n = 795) were common to all four conditions. A particularly interesting group of candidates (n = 192) was specific to samples derived from enucleated

infant area V1. Gene ontology analysis of CREB targets during early postnatal development showed a subgroup of genes implicated in cytoskeleton-based structural modification. Analysis of messenger RNA expression (quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction) of candidate genes showed striking differences Silmitasertib in expression profiles between infant and adult area V1 after ME. Our study represents the first extensive genomic analysis of CREB DNA occupancy in monkey neocortex and provides new insight into the multifaceted transcriptional role of CREB in guiding neuroplastic change.”
“Objective: To evaluate in vitro antioxidant and apoptotic activities of Cyperus rotundas (C. rotundas). Methods: The phytochemical study and the antioxidant activities of both methanol and aqueous extracts from C. rotundas

aerial part were determined. In addition, these extracts were also investigated for their cytotoxic and apoptotic activities. The major compound of the methanol extract was isolated. Both methanol and aqueous extracts (300, 150, and 50 mu g/mL) were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system. However, 16, 8, and 4 mg/mL of each extract were tested to investigate their OH center dot formation scavenging potential. Aqueous extract (800, 400, and 200 mu g/mL) and methanol extract (350, 175, and 88 mu g/mL) were tested against lipid peroxidation, induced by 75 mu M H2O2. The cytotoxicity (by MTT assay) and cell DNA fragmentation of both extracts were evaluated towards K562 and L1210 cell lines.

From the evaluation of the opto-mechanical experiments, the mecha

From the evaluation of the opto-mechanical experiments, the mechanical efficiency, kinetic rates, activation energies and the isomerization mechanism of the azocompounds in the liquid-crystalline matrix could be determined, as well as the effect of the chemical constitution of the azobenzene derivatives and their role AZD6738 in the elastomeric network.”
“Introduction: Spotted fevers are emerging zoonoses caused by Rickettsia species in the spotted fever group (SFG). Rickettsia rickettsii is the main etiologic agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) and it is transmitted by Amblyomma spp. ticks. Methods: The study aimed to investigate SFG

rickettsiae in the Arthur Thomas Municipal Park in Londrina, PR, by collecting free-living ticks and ticks from capybaras and blood samples from personnel working in these areas. Samples from A. dubitatum and A. cajennense were submitted for PCR in pools to analyze the Rickettsia spp. gltA (citrate synthase gene). Results: All the pools analyzed were negative. Human sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay with R. rickettsii HDAC inhibition and R. parkeri as antigens. Among the 34 sera analyzed, seven (20.6%) were reactive for R. rickettsii: four of these had endpoint titers equal to 64, 2 titers were 128 and 1 titer was 256. None of the samples were reactive for R. parkeri.

An epidemiological questionnaire was applied to the park staff, but no statistically significant associations were identified. Conclusions: The serological studies suggest the presence of Rickettsiae related to SFG that could be infecting the human population studied; however, analysis of the ticks collected was unable to determine which species may be involved in transmission to humans.”
“While intra-population variability in resource click here use is ubiquitous, little is known of how this measure of niche diversity varies in space and

its role in population dynamics. Here we examined how heterogeneous breeding environments can structure intra-population niche variation in both resource use and reproductive output. We investigated intra-population niche variation in the Arctic tundra ecosystem, studying peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius, White) breeding within a terrestrial-marine gradient near Rankin Inlet, Nunavut, Canada. Using stable isotope analysis, we found that intra-population niches varied at the individual level; we examined within-nest and among-nest variation, though only the latter varied along the terrestrial-marine gradient (i.e., increased among-nest variability among birds nesting within the marine environment, indicating higher degree of specialization). Terrestrial prey species (small herbivores and insectivores) were consumed by virtually all falcons.

The highly focal BOLD activation in this patient suggests that co

The highly focal BOLD activation in this patient suggests that cortex hyperexcitability might be limited to the sensorimotor cortex in PME. The combined EEG-fMRI findings highlight a dissociation between BOLD activation and neurophysiological findings. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“LncRNAH19 has been implicated as having both oncogenic and tumor suppression properties in cancer. LncRNAH19 transcripts also serve as a precursor for miR-675. However, it is unknown whether LncRNAH19 and miR-675 are involved in the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of LncRNAH19 and miR-675

on migration and invasion of HCC cells. The migration and invasion of HCC cells were measured by Transwell migration and invasion assays after HSP inhibitor drugs transfection of HCC cells with miR-675 inhibitors and LncRNAH19siRNA. The levels of LncRNAH19 and miR-675 were detected

by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and the protein expression of AKT, GSK-3 beta and Cdc25A by Western blotting analysis. The expression levels of Etomoxir mw LncRNAH19 and miR-675 were higher in MHCC-97H cells than in L02, Huh-7 and HepG2 cells. Transwell migration assay revealed that the miR-675 inhibitor and LncRNAH19siRNA could significantly increase the migration of HCC cells (P smaller than 0.01) as compared with the control group. Transwell invasion assay demonstrated that the miR-675 inhibitor and LncRNAH19siRNA could significantly increase the invasion of HCC cells (P smaller than 0.01) as compared with the control group. Western blotting analysis showed that the AZ 628 cell line expression levels of AKT and Cdc25A were significantly increased (P smaller than 0.05), and the expression level of GSK-3 beta was significantly decreased (P smaller than 0.05) after treatment with miR-675 inhibitors and LncRNAH19siRNA as compared with the control group. These

findings suggested that inhibition of LncRNAH19 and miR-675 expression can promote migration and invasion of HCC cells via AKT/GSK-3 beta/Cdc25A signaling pathway.”
“A systematic review was performed to provide a qualitative analysis and quantitative data synthesis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing debulking atherectomy versus balloon angioplasty for treatment of femoropopliteal artery occlusive disease. Pub Med (MEDLINE), EMBASE, AMED, Scopus, online content and meeting abstracts were searched in May 2014 for eligible RCTs following the PRISMA selection process. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. Pooled risks were calculated with a random effects model to account for clinical and conceptual heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis was employed to test the robustness of the results.

This role seems to be related to the ability of the guanine-nucle

This role seems to be related to the ability of the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Cdc24 to localize at the

cell tips. However, the elements behind selleck inhibitor the Cdk5-dependent stabilization of Cdc24 at the cell poles are not well understood. Here we investigate the role of the adaptor protein Bem1 in polarity maintenance in U. maydis. We found that Bem1 and Cdc24 physically interact and colocalize at cell tips and that Cdk5 regulates this interaction. Our data suggest a method by which Cdk5 could regulate polar growth in this phytopathogenic fungus.”
“The extension of indication of implantable hearing aids to cases of conductive hearing loss pushed the development of these devices. There is now a great variety of devices available with different actuator concepts and different attachment points to the middle ear or inner ear fluid. But there is little comparative data available about the devices to provide an insight into advantages

and disadvantages of different types of actuators and attachment points at the ossicular chain.\n\nThis VX-661 purchase paper investigates two principle (idealized) types of actuators in respect of attachments points at the ossicular chain and direction of excitation. Other parts of implantable hearing aids like microphone, amplifier and signal processing electronics were not incorporated into this study.\n\nInvestigations were performed by means of a mathematical simulation model of the middle ear (finite element model). Actuator performance and theoretical gain were calculated by harmonic analysis in the frequency range of 100-6000 Hz and were compared for the different situations.\n\nThe stapes head proofed to be an ideal attachment point for actuators of both types as this position is very insensitive to changes in the direction of excitation. The implantable actuators showed higher ratio of equivalent sound pressure to radiated sound pressure compared to an open hearing aid transducer and should therefore allow for more functional gain. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

“The title compound, [CoCl2(C6H5N5)(H2O)(3)]center dot H2O, was synthesized by hydrothermal reaction of CoCl2 with 4-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine. check details The Co-II cation is coordinated by two Cl- ions, one N atom from the 5-(4-pyridinio)tetrazolate zwitterion and three O atoms from three water molecules in a distorted octahedral geometry. In the crystal, molecules are linked into a three-dimensional network by N-H center dot center dot center dot Cl hydrogen bonds and O-H center dot center dot center dot O/N/Cl hydrogen bonds involving both coordinated and uncoordinated water molecules. Strong pi-pi stacking is present between parallel pyridinium and tetrazolate rings [centroid-centroid distances = 3.411 (2) and 3.436 (2) angstrom].”
“Multifactorial injuries, such as ischemia, trauma, etc.

Conclusion: Acute (60 minutes) or longer duration (2 years) e

\n\nConclusion: Acute (60 minutes) or longer duration (2 years) exposure of murine brains to mobile telephone RF fields did not produce any microglial activation detectable by Iba1 immunostaining.”
“Four new metabolites, including three new oblongolides named C1, P1, and X1 (1-3) and 6-hydroxyphomodiol (10), along with eight known compounds – oblongolides B (4), C (5), D (6), O (7), P (8) and U (9), (3R,4aR,5S,6R)-6-hydroxy-5-methylramulosin (11), and (3R)-5-methylmellein (12) – were isolated from the endophytic fungal strain Phomopsis sp. XZ-01 of Camptotheca acuminate.

Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, including H-1- and C-13-NMR, 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, H-1-H-1 COSY and NOESY) and HR-FT-MS. Cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated. Some of them showed weak selective activities.”
“Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of key methodological Apoptosis Compound Library price items of randomized control trials (RCTs) in 55 of the highest ranked journals.\n\nStudy Design and Setting: A list of the highest top ranked journals was identified, and a search for detecting RCTs in those journals

was made. Two hundred sixty four journals were screened and 55 of them were identified having at least one RCT. Three RCTs were randomly selected a priori from each journal; 148 RCTs were finally included. RCTs were assessed by two reviewers using the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement.\n\nResults: Only 11 (8%) RCTs had all items adequately reported. In addition, 36% of RCTs reported that the study GDC-0973 ic50 was registered in any trial registry. We found a significant difference in the quality of reporting for baseline characteristics,

recruitment, participant’s flow, and randomization implementation between those studies having reported the registration of their RCT in a trial registry and those that have not. Adherence to key methodological items of the CONSORT statement was as follows: sample size determination (60%), sequence generation (49%), allocation concealment (40%), and blinding Pitavastatin (25%).\n\nConclusions: Reporting of varied CONSORT items remains suboptimal. Registration in a trial registry was associated with improved reporting. Further efforts to enhance RCT registration could contribute to this improvement. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Traditional macro and micro-electroporation devices utilize facing electrodes, which generate electric fields inversely proportional to their separation distance. Although the separation distances in micro-electroporation devices are significantly smaller than those in macro-electroporation devices, they are limited by cell size. Because of this, significant potential differences are required to induce electroporation.

Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were used to develo

Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were used to develop a comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) model that related VHL-selective potency to the three-dimensional arrangement of chemical features of the chemotype. We now report the further molecular alignment-guided exploration of the chemotype to discover potent and selective PAT analogues. The contribution of the central thiazole ring was explored using a series of five-and six-membered ring heterocyclic replacements to vary the electronic and steric interactions in the central unit. We also explored a positive steric CoMFA contour adjacent to the pyridyl ring using Pd-catalysed cross-coupling

Suzuki-Miyaura, Sonogashira and nucleophilic displacement reactions to prepare of this website a series of aryl-, alkynyl-, alkoxy- and alkylamino-substituted pyridines, respectively. In vitro potency and selectivity were determined using paired RCC cell lines: the VHL-null cell line RCC4 and the VHL-positive cell line RCC4-VHL. Active analogues selectively induced autophagy in RCC4 cells. We have used the new SAR data to further develop the CoMFA model, and compared this to a 2D-QSAR method. Our progress selleck inhibitor towards realising the therapeutic potential of this chemotype as a targeted cytotoxic therapy for the treatment of RCC by exploiting the absence of the VHL tumour suppressor gene

is reported. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Ligation of the BCR induces a complex signaling network that involves activation of Akt, a family of serine/threonine protein kinases associated with B-cell development, proliferation, and tumor formation. Here, we analyzed the effect of enhanced

Akt1 signals on B-cell maturation and function. Unexpectedly, we found that peripheral B cells overexpressing Akt1 were less responsive to BCR stimuli. This correlated with a decrease in Ca2+-mobilization and proliferation, selleck products in an impaired activation of Erk1/2 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinases and poor mobilization of NFATc1 and NF-?B/p65 factors. In contrast, activation of STAT5 and migration of B cells toward the chemokine SDF1a was found to be enhanced. Akt1 Tg mice showed an altered maturation of peritoneal and splenic B1 B cells and an enhanced production of IgG1 and IgG3 upon immunization with the T-cell independent Ag TNP-Ficoll. Furthermore, mice homo-zygous for Tg Akt1 showed a severe block in the maturation of B-cell precursors in BM and a strong enrichment of plasma cells in spleen. Altogether, our data reveal that enhanced Akt1 signals modify BCR signaling strength and, thereby, B-cell development and effector function.”
“The prevalence of obesity and its associated medical complications, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, continues to rise globally. Lifestyle changes in the last decades have greatly contributed to the current obesity trends.

This used a combination of pH-sensitive polymethylacrylate and na

This used a combination of pH-sensitive polymethylacrylate and nano-porous silica, in order to improve the drug absorption using only pharmaceutical excipients and a relative simple process. The in vitro drug dissolution and in vivo oral bioavailability of this formulation, using fenofibrate as the model drug, were compared with other reference formulations such as a suspension, micronized formulation or self microemulsion drug delivery system (SMEDDS). The supersaturation stabilizing

effect of different polymers was evaluated and the physicochemical characterization of the optimal formulation was conducted by SEM, TEM, surface area analysis, DSC, and XRD. The optimized formulation prepared with polymethylacrylate (Eudragit (R) L100-55) and silica (Sylysia (R) 350) markedly improved the drug dissolution compared with other reference preparations and displayed a comparative oral bioavailability

Tariquidar chemical structure to the SMEDDS. Fenofibrate existed in a molecular or amorphous state in the nanomatrix, and this state was maintained for up to 1 year, without obvious changes in drug release and absorption. In conclusion, the nanomatrix formulation described here is a promising system to enhance the oral bioavailability of Selleck VE821 water-insoluble drugs. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“6S RNA from Escherichia coli acts as a versatile transcriptional regulator by binding to the RNA polymerase and changing promoter selectivity. Although homologous 6S RNA structures exist in a wide range of bacteria, including cyanobacteria, our knowledge of 6S RNA function results almost exclusively from studies with E. coli. To test for potential structural and functional conservation, we selected four predicted cyanobacterial 6S RNAs (Synechocystis, Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus and Nostoc), which we compared with their E. coli counterpart. Temperature-gradient PD173074 purchase gel electrophoresis revealed similar thermodynamic

transition profiles for all 6S RNAs, indicating basically similar secondary structures. Subtle differences in melting behaviour of the different RNAs point to minor structural variations possibly linked to differences in optimal growth temperature. Secondary structural analysis of three cyanobacterial 6S RNAs employing limited enzymic hydrolysis and in-line probing supported the predicted high degree of secondary structure conservation. Testing for functional homology we found that all cyanobacterial 6S RNAs were active in binding E. coli RNA polymerase and transcriptional inhibition, and had the ability to act as template for transcription of product RNAs (pRNAs). Deletion of the 6S RNA gene in Synechocystis did not significantly affect cell growth in liquid media but reduced fitness during growth on solid agar. While our study shows that basic 6S RNA functions are conserved in species as distantly related as E.

It has been reported that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also kno

It has been reported that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host-defense peptides, can selectively bind to negatively charged prokaryotic and cancer cell membranes and exert cytotoxicity, without harming normal cells or causing severe drug resistance. We have designed a series of novel cationic AMPs with potent antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. In the current study, we evaluated their anticancer potency toward gastric cancer AGS cell line. Cell viability assay

revealed that GW-H1 exhibited the lowest IC50 value (less than 20 mu M). Flow cytometry showed that upon GW-H1 treatment for 0-24 h, apoptotic cell populations of AGS increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Western KU-57788 DNA Damage inhibitor SB203580 supplier blot analysis further revealed that upon treatment for 2-6 h, apoptosis-related caspases-3, 7, 8, 9, and PARP were cleaved and activated, while autophagy-related LC3-II and beclin-1 were concomitantly increased. These results indicated that both apoptosis and autophagy were involved in the early stage of GW-H1-induced AGS cell death. However, upon treatment for 12-24 h, LC3-II began to decrease and cleaved beclin-1 increased in a time-dependent manner,

suggesting that consecutive activation of caspases cleaved beclin-1 to inhibit autophagy, thus enhancing apoptosis at the final stage. These findings provided support for future application of GW-H1 as a potential anticancer agent for gastric cancer treatment.”
“BACKGROUND: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at increased risk of inspiratory muscle fatigue and respiratory failure. The time constant (tau) of the inspiratory muscle relaxation is a simple bedside test of muscle fatigue. We have compared patients with CF and healthy P505-15 order controls regarding tau and hypothesized that it is negatively associated with severity of lower airway obstruction. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, tau after maximal inspiration and spirometric indices (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC)) were measured. RESULTS: Fifty-three CF patients (median age 14 y (interquartile range:

11-19.5)) and 53 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (14 y (11-19.5)) were recruited. Application of a general linear model revealed that health status (CF vs. non-CF) had a significant effect on tau (P smaller than 0.001), but age group and the interaction of age group with health status did not have significant effects on tau (P = 0.10 and P = 0.71, respectively). Participants with CF had significantly higher tau (253 (188-406)) than control subjects (117 (81-185)) (P smaller than 0.001) and tau was negatively related to FEV1 (r = -0.205; P= 0.031) and FVC (r = -0.294; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Patients with CF have higher tau than healthy controls but the correlation of tau with expiratory flow function is modest.

According to the results of FTS the women were categorised into t

According to the results of FTS the women were categorised into three risk groups: low risk for aneuploidy (<1:300), intermediate risk (1:300-1:50) and high risk (>1:50). They were counselled about the available options for invasive prenatal testing (IPT) and NIPT available at the time of FTS. The nine months before and after the introduction of NIPT were evaluated regarding further

testing after FTS.\n\nRESULTS: In total, 951 women were included: 505 examinations (group 1) were carried out before NIPT became available, 446 (group 2) thereafter. In group 2, 9.0% (40/446) had NIPT. Here, 60.0% (24/40) had a low risk according to FTS. In group 2 there was an increase of 3.6% of additional prenatal tests after FTS. The greatest increase was noted in the intermediate-risk Proteases inhibitor category (10.7%). The number of invasive prenatal tests decreased by 67.4%.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: We observed a notable increase in prenatal testing after the implementation of NIPT. NIPT is an additional test for women who need more reassurance. Since the options for pregnant women become more complex this website and the costs of NIPT are high, prenatal counselling has become more challenging.”
“The extent to which mitochondrial

DNA (mtDNA) variation is involved in adaptive evolutionary change is currently being reevaluated. In particular, emerging evidence suggests that mtDNA genes coevolve with the nuclear genes with which they interact to form the energy producing enzyme complexes in the mitochondria. This suggests that intergenomic epistasis between mitochondrial and nuclear genes may affect whole-organism metabolic phenotypes. Here, we use crossed combinations of mitochondrial and nuclear lineages of the seed beetle Callosobruchus

maculatus and assay metabolic rate under two different temperature regimes. Metabolic rate was affected by an interaction between the mitochondrial and nuclear lineages and the temperature regime. Sequence data suggests that mitochondrial genetic variation has a role in determining the outcome of this interaction. Our genetic dissection of metabolic rate reveals a high level of complexity, encompassing genetic interactions over two genomes, and genotype x genotype x environment Wnt tumor interactions. The evolutionary implications of these results are twofold. First, because metabolic rate is at the root of life histories, our results provide insights into the complexity of life-history evolution in general, and thermal adaptation in particular. Second, our results suggest a mechanism that could contribute to the maintenance of nonneutral mtDNA polymorphism.”
“Analysis of fast chlorophyll fluorescence rise OJIP was carried out to assess the impact of diuron, paraquat and flazasulfuron on energy fluxes and driving forces for photosynthesis in Lemna minor. Results showed that diuron and paraquat treatment produced major changes in electron transport in active reaction centres (RCs).